Issue: This may have been a risk that was identified too late or the actions taken to mitigate the risk have not been effective. It is a problem that needs to be dealt with.

Programme: A series of change management projects being managed under a single governance process. For example, the development and launch of a new digital learning platform may have a number of projects or work streams within it, eg Technology Development and Testing, Content Generation and Vetting Marketing, Sales, etc.

Project: A specific stand alone change initiative which is not part of a change programme with no dependencies or links to other change projects of work streams. For example a project to review and revise holiday cover could be led by HR as a standalone project. There is obviously a need to do this in conjunction with colleagues across the various business functions and departments; however, it can be seen as stand alone.

Risk: A potential event with adverse consequences to the project/programme. For example the inability to attract skilled staff to a particular department. A risk is identified as a likely scenario and measures can be taken to remove the risk, reduce its likelihood or lessen its impact.

Risks and Issues Log: This is a document that is used to collect and manage the risks and issues that impact negatively on the success of the project. (See example log)

Sponsor: A member of the senior leadership team (SLT) who has ultimate responsibility for the success of the change initiative